a) Please read the previous blog post to understand the jargon and for a simple introduction to genetics.
b) There isnt enough of Sri Lankan data. If you live in the US/Canada and specially over the age of 40 please consider getting your autosomal DNA tested. Its $99 (and I think a $9/month compulsory 12 month subscription) for the autosomal test at 23andMe. I have already had my Y-DNA and mtDNA tested at FTDNA a few years back and have just sent in the saliva sample for the autosomal test. The autosomal results should be available in about two months and I will publish the results online.
The Sri Lankan contingent of 6 as follows
- Sri Lankan (ethnicity unknown)
- Sinhalese Govigama
- Sri Lankan Vellala (2 individuals)
- Sri Lankan Vellala 1/2 and Telugu (1/2)
- Sri Lankan (1/2) and German (1/2)
- S. Asian = South Asian and is roughly equivalent to the Ancestral North Indian (ANI) + Ancestral South Indian (ASI) of Reich et al. (more on that later)
- Onge= The Onge are Andaman Islanders, who have no ANI component
- E. Asian=Represents the component of Chinese etc component.
- SW Asian= Its a bit of misnomer, It repesents NW Asian, Such as Iranian etc.
- The Harappa analysis is an extended analysis of the Reich et al paper, but separates the ANI and ASI into S Asian and SW Asian components.
|Reich et al abstract.(David Reichs other publications)
provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the ‘Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the ‘Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other By introducing methods that can estimate ancestry without accurate ancestral populations, we show that ANI ancestry ranges from 39–71% in most Indian groups, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India. However, the indigenous Andaman Islanders are unique in being ASI-related groups without ANI ancestry. Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years owing to endogamy.
So a couple of Initial observations. I'll revisit the charts and tables again if there is sufficient interest.
- Regardless of how the data is sorted, by Onge or S Asian or European the Sri Lankan contingent groups together (except for the 1/2 German).
- The Sri Lankan participants have a Y-DNA haplogroup of H. To quote from the Wiki Y-DNA H haplo group "seems to represent the main Y-haplogroup of the indigenous paleolithic inhabitants of India, because it is the most frequent Y-haplogroup of tribal populations (25-35%). H-M69 presence in upper castes is quite rare (ca. 10%) . Maybe the Sri Lankans are the Ravana's.
- The mtDNA of one of the Sri Lankan participant (Sinhalese) is W3a. The Wiki quote for W Y-DNA haplo group is "Haplogroup W appears in Europe, West and South Asia. It is everywhere found as minority clade, with the highest concentration being in Northern Pakistan . A related unnamed N* clade is found among Australian Aborigines".
- The mtDNa for the two Sri Lankan Tamils is M36. The Wiki quote for the M mtDNA haplo group is, "There is an ongoing debate concerning geographical origins of Haplogroup M and its sibling haplogroup N. Both these lineages are thought to have been the main surviving lineages involved in the out of Africa migration (or migrations) because all indigenous lineages found outside Africa belong to either haplogroup M or haplogroup N".
Sinhalese and Tamil DNA Admixture Analyis
|Reich et al quote.
These genomic analyses revealed two ancestral populations. "Different Indian groups have inherited forty to eighty percent of their ancestry from a population that we call the Ancestral North Indians who are related to western Eurasians, and the rest from the Ancestral South Indians, who are not related to any group outside India," said co-author David Reich
The one exception to the finding that all Indian groups are mixed is the indigenous people of the Andaman Islands, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with a census of only a few hundred today. The Andamanese appear to be related exclusively to the Ancestral South Indian lineage and therefore lack Ancestral North Indian ancestry.
Reich et al divergence.
4,000 gens (100,000 yrs) ago Split of West African and Eurasian ancestors
2,000 gens (50,000 yrs) ago: Split of ANI and ASI ancestors
1,700 gens (42,500 yrs) ago: Split of Asian populations (‘proto-East Asia', ASI, and Onge)
600 gens (15,000 yrs) ago: Gene flow from ‘proto-East Asia' into the ancestral population of ANI and West Eurasians, so that the proto-West Eurasian/ANI mixture proportion is mP. Most of our simulations assume mP=100% (no gene flow), but we vary this parameter to test the robustness of our procedure if the ancestors of ANI and West Eurasians were mixed.
400 gens (10,000 yrs)ago: Split of CEU and Adygei
200 gens (5,000 yrs) ago: Age of the ancient mixture event that formed the Indian Cline.